Referencing Guidelines

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Please use the Harvard system of referencing for all submissions to DR.

Books


Name of author. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example: 

Tracy, E. (2002) The Student’s Guide to Exam Success. Buckingham: Open University Press.

In the essay or report, refer to (Tracy 2002). If a quotation is used from page 57, (Tracy 2002: 57).

Books with two or three authors:

Names of authors. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Brown, F., Amos, J. and Mink, O. G. (1985) Statistical Concepts. New York: Harper and Row.

In the essay or report, refer to (Brown et al. 1985).

Books with more than three authors:

Name of the first author. et al(Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Note that et al. is an abbreviation, so that a full stop must be used. 

For example:

Singleton, C. et al. (1999) Dyslexia in Higher Education: policy, provision and practice. Hull: University of Hull.

In the essay or report, refer to (Singleton et al1999).

Books that have been re-published in new editions:

Name of author. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. 

For example:

Turabian, K. L. (1996) A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 6th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

In the essay or report, refer to (Turabian 1996).

Citing two or more books by the same author, published in the same year

Authors may produce two or more books in the same year. If these are cited in an assignment distinction can be made between them by adding the letters a, b, etc., next to the year of publication.

Name of author. (Yeara) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Name of author. (Yearb) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. 

For example:

Lawton, D. (1989a) Education, Culture and the National Curriculum. London:
Hodder and Stoughton.

Lawton, D. (1989b) The Education Reform Act: choice and control. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

In the essay or report, refer to (Lawton 1989a) and (Lawton 1989b).

Books compiled by an editor but with no named author:

Name of editor. (ed.) (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Bahn, P. (ed.) (2001) The Penguin Archaeology Guide. London: Penguin Books.

In the essay or report, refer to (Bahn 2001).

Books compiled by an editor, with chapters written by named authors:

Name of author. (Year of publication) Chapter title. In: Name of editor. (ed.) Book title. Place of
publication: Publisher.

For example:

Slater, A. (2001) Visual Perception. In: Bremner, G. and Fogel, A. (eds.) Blackwell
Handbook of Infant Development. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

In the essay or report, refer to (Slater 2001).

Articles, Papers and Government Publications


Journal articles

Author’s surname, INITIALS. (Year of publication) Title of article. Journal name. Volume number (issue number). First and last page numbers for the article.

For example:

Marzillier, J. (2004) The Myth of Evidence-based Psychotherapy. The Psychologist. 17 (7). 392-395.
In the essay or report, refer to (Marzillier 2004).

Article in an electronic journal:

Author’s surname, INITIALS. (Year of publication) Title of article. Journal name. [online] Volume number (issue number). First and last page numbers for the article. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

For example:

Ozanne, S.E. (2001) Metabolic Programming in Animals: type 2 diabetes. British Medical Bulletin. [online] 60. 143-152. Available from:
http://bmb.oupjournals.org/egi/content/abstract/60/1/143 [Accessed 3 rd June 2003].

Giving the URL and access date is only necessary for journals that are solely available online (E journals). If the journal you have consulted online is also available in hard copy, it is acceptable to refer to it as a printed journal.

Newspaper articles:

Author’s surname, INITIALS [or Newspaper title if author unknown]. (Year of publication) Title of article. Newspaper name. Date. Page number.

For example:

Jones, B. (2004) The Wrong Prescriptions for Intelligence. The Independent. 23rd July. 39.3

Conference papers:

Author’s surname, INITIALS. (Year of publication) Title of paper. Name of conference. Place. Date.

For example:

Watkins, T. (2001) Signs Without Words: the prehistory of writing. Conference of the British Association of Near East Archaeology. London. 13th -15th December.

Government publications

Name of government department. (Year) Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Department for Education and Skills. (2002) Key Stage 3 National Strategy, Access and Engagement in Music. London: DfES Publications.

In the essay or report, refer to (DfES 2002).

Quotations, Paraphrasing


Quotations

Quotations of less than two lines should be within the main text, in single inverted commas. Longer quotations should be indented and single spaced. Omissions in quotations should be indicated by three spaced full stops.

Referencing quotations within the text:

There are two principal ways of referencing a direct quotation, for example:

‘The case-study approach is particularly appropriate for individual researchers’ (Bell 2002: 10).

Bell states that ‘the case-study approach is particularly appropriate for individual researchers’ (2002: 10).

Block quotations are over a line long. They are indented, single spaced and separated from the main body of the text. The reference can go at the beginning, for example:

According to Tracy (2002: 139): 

Plagiarism is the theft of intellectual property. A plagiariser takes other people’s material …without stating its author’s origin. This isn’t always deliberate fraud because many students do it unwittingly.

Or at the end, for example:

Plagiarism is the theft of intellectual property. A plagiariser takes other people’s material … without stating its author’s origin. This isn’t always deliberate fraud because many students do it unwittingly (Tracy 2002: 139).

Paraphrasing or Summarising

For example:

Bell (2002:10) believes that case-studies are an effective method of research, especially for lone researchers.

If your summary is of the whole of a book, chapter or section it will not be possible to provide a page number, for example:

Bell (2002) introduces many styles of research and suggests that case-studies are particularly accessible to the teacher-researcher.

Citing plays, poems and fiction within the text

As a general convention, always place the titles of novels, plays and poetry collections in italics (AtonementHamletThe Lyrical Ballads) and the titles of novellas, short stories and individual poems in single inverted commas (‘Metamorphosis’, ‘The Dead’, ‘The Tyger’).

When plays and poems are annotated with line or verse numbers you should include these within your reference. In such cases it is often preferable to introduce the author and date within the main body of the text before the quotation.

For plays, cite the appropriate act, scene, and line number(s), for example:

Edmund’s first soliloquy in King Lear (Shakespeare 1997) establishes an important distinction between nature and the social order:

Thou, nature, art my goddess; to thy law
My services are bound. Wherefore should I
Stand in the plague of custom.. (Act 1, Sc.2. L. 1-3)

For poems, cite the line number(s), for example:

The opening of The Waste Land (Eliot 1999) challenges traditional views of spring as a season of optimism and rebirth:

April is the cruellest month, breeding
Lilacs out of the dead land (L.1-2).

If the play or poem is not annotated with line or verse numbers, simply use the appropriate page number, for example:

Endgame (Beckett 2006) repeatedly draws attention to its own status as a theatrical performance:

CLOV: What is there to keep me here?
HAMM: The dialogue. (27)

Note that all these citations include the publication date of the edition that is being quoted and not the original publication date of the work: It is King Lear (1997) not King Lear (1623).

Electronic Sources


Article in an electronic journal:

Author’s surname, INITIALS. (Year of publication) Title of article. Journal name. [online] Volume number (issue number). First and last page numbers for the article. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

For example:

Ozanne, S.E. (2001) Metabolic Programming in Animals: type 2 diabetes. British Medical Bulletin. [online] 60. 143-152. Available from: http://bmb.oupjournals.org/egi/content/abstract/60/1/143 [Accessed 3 rd June 2003].

Giving the URL and access date is only necessary for journals that are solely available online (E journals). If the journal you have consulted online is also available in hard copy, it is acceptable to refer to it as a printed journal.

Websites:

Author’s surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. [online] Available from: URL [Accessed date].

For example:

Waterfield, J. and West, B. (2002) SENDA Compliance in Higher Education. Plymouth: University of Plymouth [online] Available at: http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/pages/view.asp?page=3243 [Accessed 7th May 2004]

If the place of publication and publisher are not available, then it is acceptable to miss them out.

For example:

Smith, M. K. (2002) Jerome Bruner and the Process of Education. [online] Available from:
http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm [Accessed 15th September 2004].

Centre for Educational Leadership and Management. [2002] Research Page. [online] Available from: http://www.le.ac.uk/se/centres/celm/research.html [Accessed 1st May 2004].

Online discussion lists or blogs:

Name of author. (Year) Title of message. Discussion list. [online] Date. Available at: email address or web address [Accessed date].

For example:

Thomas, R. (2002) Employment Policy. European Sociologist [online] 27th October. Available at: jiscmail@ac.uk  [Accessed 20th November 2002).

Unpublished Sources


Theses

Name of author. (Year) Thesis title. Level of thesis: Awarding institution.

For example:

Smith, R. (1994) The Role of the LEA in Post-compulsory Education. Ph.D. thesis: Brunel University.

Interviews

Seek consent if you wish to cite information obtained in interviews. It is good practice to anonymise the participants and institutions concerned. As with other unpublished material, they should be presented under an appropriate heading and cited using the author/date format. Name of interviewee. Year (Date) Interview subject. [interview] Institution.

For example:

Smith, J. 2004 (19th February) Art Therapy. [interview] The Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

Reference Lists


Creating a Reference List

The Reference List appears at the end of your piece of work. It should be arranged in alphabetical order, according to the surnames of the authors who have been cited and should not separate different types of sources. Your Reference List should also include only those items that have been cited (referred to in the main body of an assignment). Its purpose is to provide the more detailed bibliographic details of your sources, so they can be clearly identified and easily traceable. (For more information on how different kinds of publication should be listed please refer to the list in the menu bar to the left of this page or click Referencing Guidelines).

An example list follows.

Example Reference List

Use this as a model for the presentation of Reference Lists. Note it is usually titled References.

References

Alexander, P.A. and Kulikowich, J.M. (1992) Learning from Physics Text. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco. 14th April.

Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1999) Assessment for Learning Beyond the Black Box. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Centre for Educational Leadership and Management. (2002) Research Page. [online] Available from: http://www.le.ac.uk/se/centres/celm/research.html [Accessed 1st May 2004].

Crystal, D. (1997a) English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (1997b) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dochy, F.J.R. Segers, M. and Buehi, M. (1999) The Relationship Between Assessment Practices and Outcomes of Studies: the case of research on prior knowledge. International Journal of Educational Research. 69. 147?188.

Fazey, J.A. and Parker, S. (1995) How Students Acquire Research Skills. In: Smith, B. and Brown, S.

Stylistic Notes


Abbreviations

Generally follow the rule that abbreviations (i.e. shortened forms which do not end with the last letter of the original word) are followed by a full stop e.g. Fig. PI.
Contractions (i.e. shortened forms which end with the last letter of the original word) are not followed by a full stop. e.g. Mr Dr Mrs St
Plurals follow the same rule as their singular counterparts. e.g. Drs Figs.
However, use AD not A.D., BC not B.C., OD not O.D and MS not m.s. Standard international units (m, mm, km) are regarded as symbols and therefore do not require a full stop. Omit stops from series of initials such as YAT, HMSO, RIBA, RIC, CBA, OS, sf (small find).
Do not use the ampersand, & for ‘and’.

Capital letters

Capitals should be used for the initial letters of titles when they precede a personal name e.g. ‘King William I’, but ‘William I, king of England’. Specific institutions should normally have capitals 

e.g. ‘the Society of Antiquaries’, but ‘antiquarian societies’ ‘the Roman Catholic Church’, but ‘the church’. 
Note also – River Thames, the Continent, but continental, the city of Chester, City Walls, Anglian Tower.

Footnotes

Footnotes are superfluous in a Web publication. The text in footnotes should be integrated into the main structure of the paper or if large enough, even added as a separate file.

Hyphens

Generally follow the Concise Oxford Dictionary, but please note the following:

Words beginning in co- or re-. Use the hyphen where the base word begins with a vowel and where meaning or pronunciation might not be clear without e.g. co-operate, re-erect. re-use but coalesce, rebuild, reset.
 
In compound words, often the choice between one word, a hyphen, or two words is purely a personal one, but consistency is what is desirable. Do not hyphenate words used as adjectives which end -ly. e.g. spirally formed.

Italics

Use italics for foreign words and phrases, except for those which have been Anglicised or are in common use and therefore familiar.

Note however the following common abbreviations which should be in non-italicised type: c.(circa), cf., e.g., et al., et seq., ibid., i.e., loc.cit., op. cit., passim

Local and contemporary references

Expressions such as ‘now’, ‘recent’, ‘last year’ and ‘this country’ are ambiguous and should be avoided. Current titles of honour will date and should be used once only. e.g. ‘Professor S. Dobson’ if referred to more than once should become ‘Dobson’. Otherwise style or title in personal reference is included at the discretion of the author, but it is normal to use them in acknowledgments and honorific references. The form chosen should be used consistently.

Numbers and measurements

Give numbers one to twenty in words, then use numerals. However, always use words when the number comes at the beginning of a sentence. Use numerals when the number is followed by units.

For example: ‘5km’, ‘7mm’.

Spelling

Generally follow the Concise Oxford Dictionary.

[The editors acknowledge the support of Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln and Internet Archaeology in the compilation of these guidance notes.]

[The editors acknowledge the support of Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln and Internet Archaeology in the compilation of these guidance notes.]

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